Top Programming Languages in 2023: Tech Trends for Business

March 23, 2023
18 min

Today, there are plenty of programming languages. Different sources state that there are around 2,500 programming languages. So, choosing a language to build your project becomes challenging. That is why we decided to make an overview of the top technologies that will rule 2023.

We hope that our insights into trends in the programming languages of 2023 will help you to make the right choice. We review the main benefits and cons of each language. These technologies best serve business tasks and are recognized by the developers’ community. Thus, you will better understand which languages to choose for your business.


Brendan Eich created JavaScript in 1995 while working at Netscape Communications. At that time, this computer services company launched the first popular web browser called Netscape Navigator. So Eich's task was to develop a programming language for this browser.

At first, Javascript, now one of the top programming languages, was called Mocha. However, when Netscape united with Sun, the name was changed to JavaScript.

The popularity of JavaScript is undeniable. The survey by Stack Overflow showing current trends in programming languages proves this fact. Javascript is named a popular programming language that is most commonly used by professional developers. This is for the tenth year in a row.

Most commonly used programming languages

Source: Stack Overflow

JavaScript supports plenty of frameworks and libraries. They include React, Angular, Vue.js, Next.js, Node.js, and more. With them, JavaScript easily covers the front end and back end in development.

Recommended reading: Vue.js vs React: Comparison of Two Popular JS Technologies

It is worth mentioning that today JavaScript is used with TypeScript. One of the problems of JavaScript is dynamic typing. That is why TypeScript is increasingly used for projects instead of native JavaScript. TypeScript is a strongly typed programming language based on JavaScript. TypeScript is helpful to maintain projects.

JavaScript boasts one of the largest communities in the world. As of 2022, there are over 17 million JS developers. This means you have a vast talent pool to hire a developer for your project.

Programming language communities worldwide

As of now, the average hourly rate of a JavaScript developer is $61-80. According to StackOverflow, the median yearly salary of JS developers makes $65,580. As today JavaScript is closely used with TypeScript, also consider that on average TypeScript developers earn $70,276 yearly.

JS is great for building small projects that help you test your idea. Startups and small businesses can use JS for building proof of concepts or minimum viable products. You can build the front-end, back-end, and mobile versions of your solution with just JS. Thus, you will save costs and get your project in a shorter time.

Larger companies can benefit from JS, too. This is because enriching interfaces with new features and modifying them is easy with JS. So, such companies also will save costs when building interfaces with JS.

JavaScript is the power of the rapidly growing Internet. This popular programming language gets regular updates and advancements to keep up with evolving technologies and the latest programming trends. JavaScript apps work across different platforms. Code in JS is reusable and adaptable across many systems. So, apps built with this language will be supported for a long time.


  • Wide acceptance. JavaScript is considered one of the top programming languages for web development. W3Tech states that it is used as a primary front-end programming language for 98.4% of all websites found on the Internet.
  • Server load. Being client-side technology, JavaScript reduces the demand on servers. The simplest applications may not require servers at all.
  • Powerful for building interfaces. Thanks to dynamic and flexible features and libraries, JS allows you to create seamless user interfaces.
  • Versatility. JavaScript works well with other top programming languages and can be used in different applications. It supports object-oriented, imperative, and declarative programming approaches. JS is also a functional programming language, which means that JS uses functions to handle the behavior of web pages. The functional approach allows clean code and easy verification and testing.


  • Tricky debugging on the web. Modern browsers have built-in JavaScript debuggers. Still, browser debuggers are less sophisticated as tools specifically created for debugging purposes. Nevertheless, this problem has faded over the years as new improvements appear in this field.
  • Limits in performance. Since JavaScript was intended for web development, its designers did not aim for the speed of this functional programming language. So, it does not suit complex software, such as games demanding graphics. Besides, JS can hinder performance and cause web pages to download slowly. Nevertheless, there are ways to solve this problem through code optimization.

Implementation area

JavaScript, being one of the top programming languages, can be used for various purposes, such as:

At Codica, we use JavaScript and its library React for user interfaces when we build a marketplace website, or provide other SaaS product development services to our clients.

For example, we created a custom e-commerce solution with B2C and C2C segments thanks to React, and other trusted technologies.

The platform was created as a minimum viable product to help our client verify their business idea. Owing to the technologies applied, the solution works properly across different platforms and delivers the best user experience. For example, React helped us create a minimalistic interface that works properly, processing massive amounts of data about the products.

Related reading: Top JavaScript Trends to Watch in 2023


Now, we want to discuss the Ruby programming language. Being a software development company specializing in Ruby and Ruby on Rails, we must recognize this technology among popular programming language trends.

We mentioned Ruby among the top programming languages in 2022. This language keeps pace with other evolving technologies, so we outline its benefits for your business.

Yukihiro Matsumoto invented Ruby in the mid-1990s. He came up with the idea of building a programming language to increase developers' productivity.

Though current programming language trends show a decline in popularity, the demand for Ruby remains. The Ruby team works on enhancements to ensure better performance of the solutions created with this technology. This brings the language to the top-paid technologies, as you can see in the image below.

Top paying programming, scripting, and markup languages by Stack Overflow

If you want to develop a web solution fast and efficiently, choose Ruby. When it is combined with its framework Ruby on Rails, it allows for faster development. Together, they introduce a lot of libraries out of the box. With the help of libraries, developers can get ready code. After that, developers can make necessary changes per your requirements, and the project is ready to go. Thanks to this, Ruby is one of the top programming languages.

Ruby community is active though not very big. If you need a project in Ruby, you can choose from the pool of experienced developers with more than five years of experience.

Ruby developers’ median salary makes $81,096 yearly as of December 2022. This amount varies on many factors, such as education, certifications, skills, and a number of years a developer spent in the profession.


  • Ruby supports object-oriented programming. So developers can build, debug, reuse, and maintain software products easily.
  • Elegant syntax. Ruby is noted for its simple syntax and readability. Developers can read and understand code written in this programming language effortlessly. This means that developers spend less time to build an app. Thus, companies will save costs for development. This peculiarity distinguishes Ruby among the programming language trends in 2023.
  • A significant number of gems. Ruby gems are ready solutions that can extend the existing functionality. It means that coders do not have to write code from scratch. In this regard, gems speed up web product development significantly. So you will get your solution in a shorter time.
  • High industry standards. Ruby follows the DRY (don’t repeat yourself) principle. It means reusing code whenever it is possible rather than duplicating it. The Ruby coding principles rely on the best approaches, such as an active record pattern. They improve code readability and length. Therefore, apps written in Ruby have great performance. Thanks to providing the best coding standards, Ruby is among the top programming languages.


  • Low speed. Low speed has been defined as the main drawback of the Ruby programming language. However, version 3.0 and higher have significant improvements in this regard.
  • The community is yet to grow. Ruby’s community is smaller compared to other mature programming languages. This means fewer resources for learning Ruby and fewer people to ask if a developer needs help. However, thanks to community engagement, a developer can find the help they need if they face challenges.

Implementation area

Ruby is actively used for building custom marketplace websites. The most famous examples of marketplaces created with Ruby on Rails are Airbnb, Fiverr, and Netflix.

Besides, Ruby is a perfect option for the following types of web projects:

  • SaaS custom software;
  • Prototyping;
  • Custom database solutions;
  • Content management solutions.

For example, we used Ruby on Rails to create an online news portal. It is an aggregator uniting 17 live websites. Thanks to the technologies used, we enhanced the platform's performance and optimized it for SEO.

Also, we adopted the portal for mobile devices and improved the website’s loading speed. The result is that the portal with two ecosystems can be viewed in 11 locations across Africa.

Related reading: SaaS Product Development: Why Choose Ruby on Rails Framework


Python was created in the late 1980s by Guido van Rossum. Earlier, Guido helped develop a general-purpose programming language ABC. It had some drawbacks, though the functionality was decent. So Guido took the syntax and the best features of ABC and created a new scripting language to fix all those issues.

The popularity of Python has become one of the recent trends in programming languages. According to the survey by Stack Overflow, it is the second in line of the top programming languages developers do not know but want to learn.

Most wanted programming languages

So what makes Python so sought-after these days? Simple learning, efficiency, and versatility serve as critical factors for its rapid growth. Besides, as a rule, this top online web programming language is an excellent option for artificial intelligence, machine learning, data science, and the Internet of Things which have been growing faster recently. And this trend keeps going on.

For example, according to the survey, 76% of organizations state that they prioritize AI/ML compared to other digital initiatives. So, if your business needs machine learning features, you can rely on the Python functional programming language. Python libraries, such as sci-kit-learn and pandas, allow you to create machine-learning algorithms with high scalability. So, Python is one of the top web programming languages.

Another prominent example of Python use is the popular microcontrollers Raspberry Pi. Their creators chose Python as a language to teach programming.

Python develops fast and constantly increases the speed. For example, version 3.11 is 70% faster than version 3.9. This is far from the limit. So, Python stays among the programming languages of the future.


  • Simplicity. Python has a syntax that is easy to read and understand. A flat learning curve makes this object-oriented programming language a nice choice, even for beginners. This contributes to the fact that there are around 15.7 million Python developers as of 2022. The high need for Python developers became one of the top programming languages trends. Also, keep in mind that the median yearly salary of Python developers makes $71,105, according to StackOverflow.
  • A great number of libraries. With extensive Python libraries, developers can use ready-made code snippets. All functions required for performing basic tasks are already there. This contributes to the fact that Python is one of the most used programming languages. So, you can be sure that Python-based solutions will be there for a while.
  • Processing big chunks of data. Python is widely used for data science, processing, and analyzing data. That is why popular platforms that handle massive amounts of data are built with the Python language. For example, one such resource is Dropbox, a platform where files live. Dropbox even engaged Guido van Rossum, the creator of Python, to watch after Dropbox and its proper work. Python language is also used in apps for natural language processing (NLP) and sentiment analysis. This is one of the factors that help Python to stay among popular programming language trends.


  • Runtime errors. Python is a dynamically typed language. So, variable data can change in the future. This leads to runtime errors. Therefore, developers must perform thorough testing of Python apps.
  • Limited for mobile development. Python is among the top web languages used mainly for building the server side of apps. We rarely see it on client-side and mobile apps. Developers must use Python frameworks to build mobile apps, such as Kivy and BeeWare.

Implementation area

The latest software language trends show that the following domains can benefit from using Python.

  • Data Science;
  • Artificial intelligence;
  • Internet of Things (IoT);
  • Image recognition and text processing;
  • Game development;
  • Education courses.

Since Python is among the top languages for web development, plenty of famous websites are built with its help. For example, the tech giant Google considers Python one of their key programming languages alongside Java and C++. Many internal systems and Google App Engines are created with this programming language. Instagram uses Python for its server side.

All this means that Python remains one of the programming language trends.

You may also like: How Automation Testing Increases Execution Speed, Test Coverage, and Effectiveness


James Gosling developed Java in 1995. Initially, it was aimed at interactive television. However, the technology proved too advanced, so it was used for Internet programming instead.

The key characteristics of Java as one of the top programming languages are as follows:

  • Robust;
  • Secured;
  • Platform-independent;
  • Object-oriented;
  • Dynamic.

Java allows for object-oriented programming. This means that developers can divide large projects into smaller chunks that are easy to handle. Such an approach facilitates and speeds up coding, which means that the project is delivered in a shorter time.

If you need a robust and secure custom enterprise software solution, Java is the best choice. Many libraries and frameworks serve particular purposes. The Oracle corporation improves the language with upgrades. Java development kits (JDKs) and associated software are released every six months. This way, Java stays efficient and innovative and remains one of the latest trends in programming languages.

As of 2022, there are 14 million Java developers around the world. The median salary makes $64,572 yearly. So you can easily find a specialist for your project.

In addition, the efforts of developers in support of Java were established through the Java Community Process. This way, the community contribution to the language development was standardized, ensuring the stability and compatibility of Java code.


  • Wide range of IDEs. An integrated development environment, or IDE, is software that embraces many tools needed for efficient writing and testing code. The most popular Java IDEs are IntelliJ IDEA, Eclipse, NetBeans, and BlueJ.
  • Multithreading. The term thread is used to define the smallest unit of a process. Consequently, multithreading means that several threads can run simultaneously. Multiple threads running independently can increase an app's performance and efficiency. This is one of the factors why Java stays among other popular programming language trends.
  • Enhanced security. Java holds safety features that minimize the code's vulnerability. They are a Security Manager, APIs, security protocols, and algorithms. Thus, Java provides advanced access control, authentication procedures, and cryptography techniques. That is why it is widely used in finance, banking, healthcare apps, and telecom products. These tools are one of the most noticeable factors that keep Java as one of the trends in modern programming languages.


  • Subscription-based services. Starting in 2019, the Oracle corporation offers paid subscriptions for companies. Today, Java SE Universal Subscription amounts to $15/employee. Tiered pricing is applied, which means the cost can make $5.25 per employee or even lower in companies with over 50k employees. For current Java subscription prices, check this website.
  • Code complexity. Despite the advantages of object-oriented programming, code written in Java can be too lengthy. It has a lot of long and complex sentences that can be challenging to read and understand.
  • Inconsistent performance. Java code runs on Java Virtual Machines, providing a runtime environment for Java code. The runtime interpretation of code means a fall in performance. This problem is partly solved with a just-in-time compiler, but still, there is a way to improve.

Implementation area

Java is considered one of the top web languages. Typical uses of this object-oriented language include:

  • Enterprise applications (finance, banking, healthcare, etc.);
  • Mobile applications;
  • Big Data technologies;
  • Software tools;
  • Trading applications.

Related reading: Top Web Development Trends to Outline 2023


The creation of C# started from the .Net framework in 1999. Anders Hejlsberg noted the flaws of popular languages and decided to design a new programming language. It was called Cool (C-like Object-Oriented Language) and renamed to C# later due to copyright issues.

After 20 years of its history, C# has evolved into a powerful language with many applications. It is one of the most popular programming languages, which ranks fifth in TIOBE and fourth in PYPL indexes.

C# was incredibly similar to Java initially but moved a different road adopting new features fast. For example, it included lambda expressions ahead of Java. Lambda expressions are small code blocks that are a concise way of presenting methods. Lambda expressions save a lot of code, thus, optimizing the program. This improves the quality and speed of development and code performance.

Mads Torgersen, a senior program manager at Microsoft, talks about the future of C# for 2023 in the video below. He states that the language embraces new features to keep it along with the latest coding technologies.

C# is the basic language of Microsoft, so it is mainly used for creating Windows desktop applications. Thus, the prominent use of this language is for creating apps and programs specific to the Microsoft platform.

As of 2022, the median yearly salary of C# developers made $69,516. You can choose from around 10 million C# developers around the globe for a relevant project.


  • Versatility. Object-oriented languages like C# ensure efficiency, scalability, and simple maintenance. Also, the support from the cloud computing service Microsoft Azure allows for building a wide range of solutions and simple deployment in the cloud. All this makes C# one of the programming language trends.
  • Easy-to-debug code. C# is a statically typed language that allows debugging without running the program. So, it’s easy to find errors in the code, be it yours or other developers.
  • Large community. As the C# team considers developers' real-life needs, the language won a large community that helped it evolve. This ensures that C# stays along with other programming languages of the future.


  • Dependence on Windows. C# requires using a Windows-based server to run an app. This issue is partly compensated by the possibility of running C# on Mac or Linux.
  • Reliance on the .NET framework. Using the .NET framework is advisable when considering it as the primary tech stack to run the code on different platforms and OS. C# on its own is not that flexible.
  • Slow load. In case of changes, as a rule, a developer needs to recompile the code, which can be tedious.

Implementation area

  • Windows apps, libraries, components, and services;
  • Web apps, services, and API;
  • Mobile apps;
  • Native iOS and Android mobile apps;
  • Game development;
  • Enterprise applications;
  • Back-end services;
  • AR/VR;
  • Machine learning software.

The language is widely used for building apps and services. It is an excellent tool for game development as part of the Unity game engine that boasts of creating the top games in the world, such as “Pokémon Go” and “Ori: Will of the Wisps”. This makes C# one of the popular programming language trends.

The most prominent solutions, such as Adobe Photoshop, Mozilla Firefox, and Thunderbird, were created with C#.

Further reading: Top SaaS Trends to Watch in 2023


Chris Lattner started working on Swift together with other Apple developers in 2010. The basic idea of a new programming language was taken from multiple technologies. They include Objective-C, Ruby, Python, Rust, and C#.

Swift, one of the emerging programming languages, was designed to replace Objective-C. The latter programming language has remained the same since the 1980s. Consequently, it needed more modern functionality. Check the video below for a short overview of Swift.

Based on the community feedback, Swift got several updates in 2022. Thanks to reports and forum discussions, this language now has optimizations that improve the ecosystem and developers’ experience. Thus, they can approach your projects with great efficiency and speed.

Recent programming languages trends define Swift as a great choice if you need iOS and mobile app development. Also, as of 2022, the median hourly rate of Swift developers makes $30-49 as a rule, reaching $117.


  • Scalability. Swift projects are noted for their scalability. You can easily extend the existing functionality by adding new features when needed.
  • Rapid development. Swift is among the top programming languages with a clean and expressive syntax. As a result, developers should write less code to perform regular tasks compared to Objective-C.
  • Enhanced performance. Developers can avoid major code crashes and errors due to excellent typing and error-handling functions. Besides, if there is a mistake in a code snippet, programmers notice and fix it immediately. This aspect ensures Swift's growth along with major programming languages in 2023.


  • Limited talent pool. Since Swift is one of the upcoming programming languages, it has a minimal community. The community is growing steadily, but it is still small compared to other languages. According to Stack Overflow, only 5.18% of professional developers use this technology.
  • Lack of backward compatibility. Developers noticed that Swift lacks backward compatibility with the release of each new version. Sometimes they have to rewrite their code to make projects relevant.
  • Lack of compatibility with third-party tools. Due to significant changes in each new version of Swift, third-party tools and integrations of older code may become incompatible with new versions.

Implementation area

Swift is used for mobile app development and building macOS, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS products. Therefore, if you need an Apple app, choose this language.

You may also like: Hot Mobile Application Development Trends for Your Business in 2023


Go, or Golang is a procedural programming language that appeared in 2007. Its creators are Google developers Robe Pike, Ken Thompson, and Robert Griesemer. Go was designed to make the software development process in Google more productive and scalable. In 2009, developers resealed Go as an open-source project.

JetBrains has released a survey covering the most significant programming language trends. According to their findings, Go is one of the top programming languages developers were learning in 2022. Also, nearly 18% of professional developers who worked with JavaScript will most likely shift to working with Go. You can see that in the image below.

Go as a language to learn in 2022

Source: Stack Overflow

Since its creation, Go has moved from a cohort of new programming languages used out of curiosity to a mature tool applied to significant solutions.

In early 2022, a new version of Go was released. The new language version, Go 1.18, includes generic functions that allow for accepting different variables. Such an approach ensures compatibility across the solutions created with Go at different times. It is a long-awaited improvement that shows that Go changes slowly but steadily.

Go complements projects written in other languages. For example, if you have an app in JavaScript with overloaded fragments or you want to speed up your product, you can rewrite certain parts in Go.

The Go community still grows. Today, there are 3.3 million Go developers around the world. If you want to hire a Go developer, consider that their median salary makes $89,204 a year as of 2022.


  • Simple syntax. The Go language ranks among the top programming languages with a clean and easy-to-read syntax. Besides, it has few complex functions to discover. That is why this programming language is a good start for developers.
  • Great standard library. Go comes with a decent standard library, which makes using third-party libraries less required. This contributes to the reliability of Go solutions and ensures easy changes in them if needed.
  • Robust static analysis tools. Static analysis tools in Go help find code style, performance, and security issues. Take gofmt as an example. This instrument formats the written code in compliance with the style suggested by Go. It means that your team gets more time to concentrate on the purpose of the code. Given this helpfulness, it is clear that Go stays among other programming languages trends.


  • Limited packaging. Go offers a smaller number of packages compared to other ecosystems, such as Ruby or Node.js.
  • Poor error handling. Developers need to use a repair error function if they expect any errors in their code. Also, they have to write many blocks to verify this mistake. As a result, development takes more time.

Implementation area

The latest trends in programming languages suppose using Go for the following products:

  • Cloud services;
  • Media platforms;
  • Google products, including Google extensions;
  • On-demand services.

For example, Go has been used for creating SoundCloud, Dropbox, and Dailymotion. Also, this language has been applied to build keystone cloud computing tools, such as Docker, Kubernetes, and Istio.

Recommended reading: The Power of CSS Processors in Web Applications Development


Solidity is a statically typed language that allows for object-oriented programming and is used to create smart contracts. Let’s discover what a smart contract is. It is a computer program that executes the terms and conditions of a real contract without intermediaries. For example, if you want to buy a land plot with a smart contract procedure, you do not need a third-party website. The ownership documents will be transferred to you directly.

Smart contracts are used in clinical trials, supply chain management, the music industry, mortgages, property ownership, retail, etc.

Smart contracts have a de facto blockchain protocol called Ethereum. The Solidity language itself was proposed by Gavin Wood, former CTO of Ethereum, and developed by blockchain engineers to make it suitable for programming smart contracts. That is why blockchain engineers prefer Solidity working with Ethereum.

Hiring a Solidity developer costs $70,368 yearly. This is the newest programming language, so the community is still growing. As of now, 1.52% of professional developers use this technology.


  • Reliable for smart contracts. Solidity is one of the best new programming languages, well-suited for creating transparent and safe smart contracts. It holds many helpful tools as it is similar to the established languages, like C++ and JavaScript. This explains why Solidity is among the latest programming languages trends.
  • Open source documents. The language is supported by open-source documentation explaining how the language works. This contributes to the fact that Solidity is one of the top programming languages used in blockchain.
  • Easy debugging with ABI. Application Binary Interface is a tool helping developers to tune the interaction between contracts on the blockchain platform. Additionally, it helps developers find errors in code. Thus, thanks to object-oriented programming and ABI, Solidity developers can improve the code quality faster.


  • Immutability. Smart contracts change over time and need more features. With Solidity code, contracts are immutable. On the other hand, a developer knows how the contract works without unpredictable changes.
  • New language. As it is a young language, it lacks libraries for developers. Thus, beginners might find it difficult to approach the language.

Implementation area

Solidity is used for developing the following projects:

  • Smart contracts;
  • Stablecoins;
  • Digital tokens;
  • Decentralized apps (dApp);
  • Decentralized autonomous organizations (DAO).


As you can see, the software development industry's future looks promising. Current trends in programming languages show that there is a wide selection of top programming languages for any software development project. Languages like JavaScript, Python, C#, and Java are widely used and supported by the development community. Other languages are used for creating diverse platforms and mobile apps, like Go, Ruby, Swift, and Solidity.

By knowing programming language trends you can choose the right language for building your solution. Your ultimate choice depends on the application type you will build and specific business requirements.

Are you looking for a company offering the best custom software development services? Feel free to contact us. We will eagerly take up your project.

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Dmytro is a software entrepreneur with 20+ years of experience focused on the Lean Startup approach. He loves helping startups build excellent custom products.
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