Performance, speed, or popularity? What are the most vital characteristics that developers seek in the tech stack? There could hardly be a single reason why certain frameworks rise, while others become a thing of the past.
1. React stays on top
Did you know that in 2021 React surpassed JQuery as the most commonly-used framework?
Congratulations to all React fans out there!
In 2011, React library came into life because of Facebook’s need to maintain the quickly evolving traffic for its services. The early-stage prototype for React was called FaxJS. It was not yet such a robust, efficient, and convenient library for developing user interfaces.
You may also like: How to Create a PWA with React 📱 Progressive Web Apps Guide
2020 was marked by the first React release that did not add new features. Instead, this version enabled gradual upgrades and facilitated embedding React into other technologies.
Further reading: React App Development: UI, Styling, State Management, Testing
Also, the React team introduced some experimental features like concurrency and zero-bundle-size server components. Thanks to concurrent rendering, the announced React 18 plan of 2021 will continue the improvements.
The concurrent mode makes it possible to defer your changes from appearing on screens. It enhances the app performance and much differs from the React approach we had before.
Our team monitors the state of React passionately and expects 2022 to be a great year for React developers. If you want to boost your efficiency, scoop the best practices and tools for React development in our article.
2. Vue continues to evolve
Sometimes, it can be hard for a developer to choose between Vue.js and React for a project. In Codica, we use both of these frameworks for different tasks that occur during custom software development.
Vue.js is known for its modularity, elasticity, and progressiveness. A big community and excellent documentation also add up to its advantages.
In 2020, we saw the long-awaited major release of Vue.js – 3.0. It brought boosted apps’ performance, smaller bundle sizes, and enhanced TypeScript support. Also, the Vue team released the Composition API that facilitates work with large-scale projects.
In August 2021, Vue 3.2 was released with a number of improvements. Let’s learn more about the Vue enhancements that will affect trends in JS frameworks in 2022.
The comparison between Vue 3.0 and Vue 3.2 reactivity system indicates significant improvements, namely:
- Up to 260% faster read and 50% faster write in ref implementation;
- Up to 40% faster dependency tracking;
- Up to 17% less memory usage.
How did Vue 3.2 get such amazing results? The template compiler released in Vue 3.0 quickly renders the static content and flattens the template’s dynamic nodes. Now it has got several improvements. For example, the plain element VNodes can be created 200% faster.
Before the third release, Vue was well-suited mostly for small projects. For example, Codica team successfully used Vue for the front-end part of our time-tracking Slack bot.
Building UI component libraries
The new method ‘defineCustomElement’ allows building custom solutions using Vue component APIs. This feature enables developers to create UI component libraries driven by Vue, and it is compatible with any framework you use.
You can read more about the latest enhancements in the Vue blog.
3. TypeScript is growing rapidly
The solution from Microsoft is not the only one presented on the market. However, the latest State of JS survey shows that TypeScript is the most used language here.
Advantages of TypeScript
Optional static typing
TypeScript is based on the structural, or ‘duck’, typing. Using TypeScript, you can create complex types by combining existing ones. For that purpose, you can use unions or generics. Also, TypeScript supports interfaces.
Early bug detection
Further reading: Advantages of Test Driven Development
Large-scale solutions support
That is why TypeScript became the third most loved language in 2021, according to the Stack Overflow Developer Survey. The JS trends indicate that the popularity of this technology will continue to grow in 2022.
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4. Node.js got a spike in demand
Why has Node.js become so popular? Because its versatility makes development faster and brings high performance for the solutions.
Each of the following use cases embeds the Node.js’ capabilities:
Websites with streaming media and resources with multiple file uploads. For example, Netflix.
Real-time applications that process many short messages with the slightest delay. For example, LinkedIn and Trello.
Applications based on microservices. For example, PayPal.
5. Jamstack serves millions
Jamstack is a web development architecture that enables users to build fast and secure websites. Coined by Netlify, Jamstack has gone far beyond the JAM. It refers now to a broad architectural method of making sites with many libraries and methods.
The Jamstack Community Survey found that 32% of Jamstack developers work on solutions that attract millions of users. The most prominent examples of getting the best of Jamstack include Twilio and Spring.
Customization may be made as needed, so changes require less code.
Markup and assets are delivered via CDN (content delivery network), ensuring better performance.
The CDN smoothes the scaling of your website in case it experiences spikes or projected growth of traffic or expanding.
Web developers focus on building websites based on microservices. There is no need to depend on monolithic structure.
Jamstack pages are fast and light. This makes your website rank higher by Core Web Vitals, where load speed is one of the criteria.
Server-side rendering mode helps generate content for highly dynamic and changing websites when a user requests the page.
Jamstack websites don’t have direct ties to sensitive information. So they are safe from hackers’ attacks.
The solutions can use third-party APIs, such as weather forms or user authentication. So make sure that you have a backing code that saves your website from going down due to a third party’s API failure.
Jamstack requires coding in many cases. It’s not totally plugin-friendly. Thus, you might need changes if your solution is not connected to a CMS (content management system).
You need to “build” every page after making changes. This is inconvenient in the case of a website with many pages.
But Jamstack engineers work hard to solve the issues. With all its capabilities, Jamstack promises to stay trendy in 2022.
6. GraphQL is capturing data management
GraphQL is a query language released by Facebook in 2015. This data management tool provides a flexible syntax for querying data from both the back-end and front-end. Nowadays, it is used by many popular companies like GitHub, Pinterest, Coursera, Shopify, and many more.
In 2020, GraphQL had the highest interest among all technologies that programmers are aware of. 86% of programmers who have heard about this language want to study it.
However, the leader in providing data management is still Redux, which is used by 67% of developers. But JS trends show that this technology is losing satisfaction among programmers.
Why is developers’ satisfaction with Redux decreasing? The thing is, Redux often is quite verbose and requires too much boilerplate. Also, it is not so good at managing cached data for applications.
The reason for GraphQL creation was Facebook’s need to increase the performance of data calls within their apps. And GraphQL did that job great.
Advantages of GraphQL
- Faster data retrieval
REST approach deals with individual URLs that require combining multiple endpoints in the API request. But GraphQL collects data under a single endpoint. So to retrieve the needed data, programmers will need to perform just one API call.
Boosted query efficiency
The name of the language suggests that it uses graphs to define the data on the server. Such a graph-based scheme allows delivering the data in packages rather than through multiple API calls.
GraphQL supports arguments for each field and nested object, including scalar fields. This strong typing feature comes from the abstraction principle. In such a way, we reduce complexity and focus on the essential information.
7. Angular improves performance and ergonomics
Freelancer, IBM, Weather, and Forbes have built their websites using Angular which:
Ensures high performance that helps websites stand heavy loads;
Provides rich user experience with perfect responsiveness;
Supports appealing visual animations and themes.
In 2021, Angular has got several improvements, including the following:
Angular Package Format provides faster execution and more independence from internal APIs;
APIs simplify the dynamic creation of components;
Improved speed and ergonomic options;
ESBuild optimizes global scripts and CSS, as well as style sheets.
8. Svelte is growing by leaps and bounds
Svelte is a lightweight framework that helps build robust web apps. Unlike React and Vue that convert applications into Vanilla JS code during runtime, Svelte performs it during build time. Svelte acts as a compiler that allows running apps in browsers without an abstraction layer.
Let’s discuss what is so special about Svelte, one of the JS trends in 2022 you cannot ignore.
Advantages of Svelte
We have heard that React is reactive. But Svelte finds another source of reactiveness other than React’s virtual DOM. The thing is, all components in the Svelte app can have a state. As soon as you change the state of a component, the DOM gets updated.
The syntax of Svelte is straightforward and readable. Also, Svelte applications do not need much boilerplate.
9. Web components as building blocks of the Web
That is why these building blocks of modern web apps are called framework-independent or agnostic web components. They facilitate web development and reduce the time and costs needed to build an application.
- Custom Elements allow developers to create new autonomous HTML tags with fully-customizable behavior.
- Shadow DOM makes it possible to encapsulate DOM subtrees to the web elements.
- HTML Template provides the way to create markup fragments that do not affect the page load by being instantiated at runtime.
Advantages of web components
- Interoperability and flexibility
Reusability and encapsulation
Progressive web apps are gaining momentum now. Thus, PWA development became a must for businesses that want to engage with their mobile customers efficiently. That is where web components could be of great help due to their small bundle size and quick runtime.
Codica Team has vast experience of work with the PWA technology. And right now we are looking for an experienced React developer to help us build complex custom marketplaces and SaaS platforms with mobile-first experience in mind.
Learn more about the position in our Careers opportunities
10. Component-based architecture rocks
Component-based architecture decomposes the design into logical or functional elements. These elements embody well-known interfaces like methods, properties, and events.
Component-based architecture strives to enhance component reuse. The components are self-deployable binary units that encapsulate functionality.
Speaking of the latest JS trends and front-end development in general, we could not omit talking about an open-source platform called Bit. It is a great tool for sharing, storing, and organizing web components from any project. It helps increase code reusability and collaborate on separate components.
Advantages of component-based architecture
Ease of deployment When you need to roll out a new version, you do not need to replace the whole system. Everything that relates to the specific component is declared within its class.
Reduced cost You can integrate third-party components and also divide the software costs across different apps.
Ease of development Components use interfaces that help not to affect other parts of the application. The thing is, one level of architecture (the view in most cases) contains the logic, design, and helper functions.
By the way, right now Codica Team is in search of an experienced Vue developer to work on custom marketplaces and SaaS products with us. If you love Vue and want to build complex web products from scratch, welcome to our team! Check the position details and apply now!
Next.js. React-based framework that is well-suited for server-rendered single-page apps. It supports hybrid static rendering, smart bundling, and route prefetching. Also, it comes with great TypeScript and SEO support.
Nuxt.js. It can be described as a Next.js on Vue. However, it is a framework that has its benefits. For example, it deals well with building universal apps that can be executed on both the front-end and back-end sides. Also, it has fine meta tags managing that boosts SEO.
Gatsby. React-powered framework for building e-commerce platforms, landings, blogs, and progressive web applications. It provides programmers with code and data splitting by having GraphQL under the hood. Also, it is good in terms of velocity, safety, and SEO practices.
In 2021, the released Gatsby 4 acquired new rendering options, parallel query running, and upgraded Cloud preview. It boasts faster building and deployment and promises blazing speed for website visitors.
Gatsby 4 was declared the most impactful version compared to previous releases. You can learn more about it on the official Gatsby website.
- VuePress. Static site generator developed by the creator of Vue, Evan You. It facilitates technical documentation handling. Using VuePress, you can get a pre-rendered SEO-friendly SPA with the use of just two commands. Also, you can use Vue components in your VuePress applications.
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Nest.js. Node.js framework is powered by TypeScript. It is well-suited for the development of robust and scalable back-end apps of all kinds. It catches the best ideas from object-oriented, functional, and reactive programming. Its architecture provides code modularity, testability, and maintainability.
Express.js. Node.js framework, primarily used for building RESTful API servers. It offers support of I/O request handling. Also, Express comes with a collection of tools and middleware modules to facilitate the development process. Also, it is easy to configure and scale.
Fastify. It provides a speedy and low overhead alternative for the previous framework. Fastify features encapsulated plugins, hooks, and decorators that facilitate code reusability and decoupling. Also, it supports TypeScript, one of the most important current JS trends.
Related reading: Top 10 Online Marketplace Trends to Watch out for in 2022
LitElement. Fast and lightweight library for sharing components across projects and developing a UI design system.
Date-fns. Modern date utility library for browsers and Node.js. It is more lightweight than the Moment library.
RxJS. Powerful library for creating functional, asynchronous, and event-based programs by using observable sequences.
Agenda.js. Low overhead library for job scheduling in Node.js backed by MongoDB.
Jest. Fast, safe, and well-documented library for building, running, and structuring tests.
- Tutorial: Intro to React;
- Vue.js 3.0.0 Documentation;
- TypeScript Handbook;
- Web Components basics;
- Introduction to GraphQL;
- Svelte Introduction;
- PWA Guide by Google;
- Introduction to LitElement;
- Getting Started with date-fns.